Acne is an inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and here follicle of the skin that is marked by the eruption of pimples. It commonly occurs during puberty when the sebaceous glands are stimulated by male hormones named androgen produced by the adrenal glands of both males and females. Women are 3 times more prone to acne attack than men.
Typical features of acne include: seborrhea (increased oil-sebum secretion), comedones, papules, pustules, nodules (large papules), and possibly scarring. The appearance of acne varies with skin color.
Acne develops as a result of blockages in the follicles. Hyperkeratinization and formation of a plug of keratin and sebum (a microcomedo) is the earliest change. Enlargement of sebaceous glands and an increase in sebum production occur with increased androgen production. The microcomedo may enlarge to form an opencomedo (blackhead) or closed comedo. In these conditions, the naturally occurring largely commensal bacterium Propionibacterium acnes can cause inflammation, leading to inflammatory lesions in the dermis around the microcomedo or comedone, which results in redness and may result in scarring or hyperpigmentation.
Various medications like Benzoyl peroxide, Antibiotics, Salicylic acid, Hormones, Oral and topical retinoids are used to treat acne.