Depression

Depression is a common mental disorder, characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, feelings of tiredness, and poor concentration.

Depression can be long-lasting or recurrent, substantially impairing an individual’s ability to function at work or school or cope with daily life. At its most severe, depression can lead to suicide. When mild, people can be treated without medicines but when depression is moderate or severe they may need medication and professional talking treatments.

What are the signs and symptoms of depression?

Signs and symptoms of depression include:

  • Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness
  • Loss of interest in daily activities
  • Appetite or weight changes
  • Sleep changes
  • Anger or irritability
  • Loss of energy
  • Self-loathing
  • Reckless behavior
  • Unexplained aches and pains

Types of Depression

There are several types of depression. The most common types are major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder.

  • Major depressive disorder
  • Dysthymic disorder.
  • Subsyndromal depression
  • Psychotic depression
  • Bipolar depression

Management

Drugs used for treatment of depression include the following:

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

  • Sertraline
  • Fluoxetine
  • Escitalopram
  • Citalopram

Serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

  • Mirtazapine

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

  • Imipramine
  • Clomipramine
  • Amitryptyline

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

  • Moclobemide